Monavathia's Blog

CCNA 4 Labskill Chapter 4

Posted on: January 5, 2011

Lab 4.1.2 Characterizing Network Applications

Step 1: Cable and configure the current network

a. Connect and configure the devices in accordance with the topology and configuration given.

For this lab, a PC workstation can substitute for a Discovery Server.

b. Ping between Host 1 and Discovery Server to confirm network connectivity.

Troubleshoot and establish connectivity if the pings fail.

Step 2: Configure NetFlow on the interfaces

NetFlow is configured to monitor data flows in or out of specific router interfaces. Ingress captures traffic that

is being received by the interface. Egress captures traffic that is being transmitted by the interface. In this lab,

the traffic will be monitored on both router interfaces and in both directions from within the console session.

a. From the global configuration mode, issue the following commands:

FC-CPE-1(config)#interface fastethernet 0/0

FC-CPE-1(config-if)#ip flow ?

Note the two options available:

egress Enable outbound NetFlow

ingress Enable inbound NetFlow

Which option captures traffic that is being received by the interface? ingress

Which option captures traffic that is being transmitted by the interface? egress

b. Complete the NetFlow configuration.

FC-CPE-1(config-if)#ip flow egress

FC-CPE-1(config-if)#ip flow ingress

FC-CPE-1(config-if)#interface fastethernet 0/1

FC-CPE-1(config-if)#ip flow ingress

FC-CPE-1(config-if)#ip flow egress

FC-CPE-1(config-if)#exit

FC-CPE-1(config)#end

Step 3: Verify the NetFlow configuration

a. From the privileged EXEC mode, issue the show running-configuration command.

For each FastEthernet interface, what statement from the running-configuration denotes that NetFlow

is configured?

interface FastEthernet0/0:

ip flow ingress

ip flow egress

interface FastEthernet0/1:

ip flow ingress

ip flow egress

b. From the privileged EXEC mode, issue the command:

FC-CPE-1#show ip flow ?

Note the three options available:

export Display export

Statistics

interface Display flow

configuration on Interfaces

top-talkers Display top talkers

FC-CPE-1#show ip flow interface

FastEthernet0/0

ip flow ingress

ip flow egress

FastEthernet0/1

ip flow ingress

ip flow egress

Confirm that the output shown above is displayed. Troubleshoot your configuration if this output is not

displayed.

Step 4: Create network data traffic

a. The captured data flow can be examined using the show ip cache flow command issued from

the privileged EXEC mode.

FC-CPE-1#show ip cache flow

Issuing this command before any data traffic has flowed should produce output similar to the example

shown here.

IP packet size distribution (0 total packets):

1-32 64 96 128 160 192 224 256 288 320 352 384 416 448 480

.000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000

512 544 576 1024 1536 2048 2560 3072 3584 4096 4608

.000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000

IP Flow Switching Cache, 0 bytes

0 active, 0 inactive, 0 added

0 ager polls, 0 flow alloc failures

Active flows timeout in 30 minutes

Inactive flows timeout in 15 seconds

last clearing of statistics never

Protocol Total Flows Packets Bytes Packets Active(Sec)

Idle(Sec)

——– Flows /Sec /Flow /Pkt /Sec /Flow /Flow

SrcIf SrcIPaddress DstIf DstIPaddress Pr SrcP DstP

Pkts

b. List the seven highlighted column headings and consider what use this information may be in

characterizing the network.

Protocol

Total Flows

Flows per Second

Packets per Flow

Bytes per Packet

Packets per Second

Seconds of active flow

Seconds of no flow (idle)

c. To ensure that flow cache statistics are reset, from privileged EXEC mode issue the command:

FC-CPE-1# clear ip flow stats

d. Ping the Business Server from Host 1 to generate a data flow.

From the command line of Host 1, issue the command ping 172.17.1.1 -n 200

Step 5: View the data flows

a. At the conclusion of the data flow, the details of the flow can be viewed. From privileged EXEC mode,

issue the command:

FC-CPE-1#show ip cache flow

Output similar to that shown below will be displayed. Some values and details may be different in

your lab.

IP packet size distribution (464 total packets):

1-32 64 96 128 160 192 224 256 288 320 352 384 416 448 480

.000 .900 .096 .000 .000 .000 .000 .002 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000

512 544 576 1024 1536 2048 2560 3072 3584 4096 4608

.000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000

IP Flow Switching Cache, 278544 bytes

5 active, 4091 inactive, 48 added

1168 ager polls, 0 flow alloc failures

Active flows timeout in 30 minutes

Inactive flows timeout in 15 seconds

IP Sub Flow Cache, 17416 bytes

0 active, 1024 inactive, 0 added, 0 added to flow

0 alloc failures, 0 force free

1 chunk, 1 chunk added

last clearing of statistics never

Protocol Total Flows Packets Bytes Packets Active(Sec)

Idle(Sec)

——– Flows /Sec /Flow /Pkt /Sec /Flow

/Flow

UDP-DNS 31 0.0 1 72 0.0 0.0

15.5

UDP-other 10 0.0 2 76 0.0 4.1

15.2

ICMP 2 0.0 200 60 0.3 198.9

15.3

Total: 43 0.0 10 61 0.3 10.2

15.5

SrcIf SrcIPaddress DstIf DstIPaddress Pr SrcP DstP

Pkts

< output omitted >

b. Examine your output and list details that indicate data flow.

Protocol

Total Flows

Flows per Second

Packets per Flow

Bytes per Packet

Packets per Second

Seconds of active flow

Seconds of no flow (idle)

Step 6: Stop the NetFlow capture

a. To deactivate NetFlow capture, issue the no ip flow command at the interface configuration

prompt.

FC-CPE-1(config)#interface fastethernet 0/0

FC-CPE-1(config-if)#no ip flow ingress

FC-CPE-1(config-if)#no ip flow egress

FC-CPE-1(config)#interface fastethernet 0/1

FC-CPE-1(config-if)#no ip flow ingress

FC-CPE-1(config-if)#no ip flow egress

b. To verify that NetFlow is deactivated, issue the show ip flow interface command from the

privileged EXEC mode.

FC-CPE-1#show ip flow interface

FC-CPE-1#

No output is displayed if NetFlow is off.

Step 7: Clean up

Erase the configurations and reload the routers and switches. Disconnect and store the cabling. For PC hosts

that are normally connected to other networks (such as the school LAN or to the Internet), reconnect the

appropriate cabling and restore the TCP/IP settings.

Step 8: Reflection

Consider the possible range of data flow types across a network and how a tool like NetFlow could be

implemented to assist in analyzing those flows.

List of data flow categories and types: Client to Client, Client to Server, Server to Client, and Server to Server

Email, intranet web, database flows, document file flows

Number of separate flows of each type, size (bytes) of each flow, time each flow is on the network

Daftar kategori dan jenis aliran data: Client untuk Klien, Klien ke Server, Server untuk Client, dan Server ke Server
Email, web intranet, aliran database, file dokumen arus
Jumlah arus yang terpisah masing-masing jenis, ukuran (bytes) dari setiap aliran, waktu setiap aliran pada jaringan

Final Configurations

Router 1

version 12.4

service timestamps debug datetime msec

service timestamps log datetime msec

no service password-encryption

!

hostname FC-CPE-1

!

boot-start-marker

boot-end-marker

!

enable password cisco

!

no aaa new-model

ip cef

!

!

!

interface FastEthernet0/0

ip address 10.0.0.1 255.255.255.0

ip flow ingress

ip flow egress

duplex auto

speed auto

!

interface FastEthernet0/1

ip address 172.17.0.1 255.255.0.0

ip flow ingress

ip flow egress

duplex auto

speed auto

!

interface Serial0/1/0

no ip address

shutdown

no fair-queue

clock rate 2000000

!

interface Serial0/1/1

no ip address

shutdown

clock rate 2000000

!

!

ip http server

no ip http secure-server

!

!

!

control-plane

!

!

!

line con 0

password cisco

login

line aux 0

line vty 0 4

password cisco

login

!

scheduler allocate 20000 1000

end


Lab 4.2.3 Analyzing Network Traffic

Task 1: Design Network Access to FTP and Email Services

Step 1: FTP network considerations

File transfer traffic can put high-volume traffic onto the network. This traffic can have a greater effect on

throughput than interactive end-to-end connections. Although file transfers are throughput-intensive, they

typically have low response-time requirements. As part of the initial characterization of the network, it is important to identify the level of FTP traffic that will be generated. From this information, the network designers can decide on throughput and redundancy requirements.

a. List possible file transfer applications that would generate traffic on the FilmCompany network.

Document sharing

Video production file transfer

b. List these applications by priority based on response time.

1. Video production file transfer

2. Document sharing

c. List these applications by priority based on bandwidth requirements.

1. Video production file transfer

2. Document sharing

Step 2: Email network considerations

Although customers expect immediate access to their emails, they usually do not expect emails to have

network priority over files that they are sharing or updating. Emails are expected to be delivered reliably and accurately. Generally, emails are not throughput-intensive, except when there are enterprise-wide mail-outs or there is a denial of service attack.

List some email policies that could control the volume of email data and the bandwidth used.

Membatasi ukuran lampiran email

Membatasi nomor penerima pesan email

Memastikan spam terfilter sebelum menjangkau LAN

Step 3: Configure and connect the host PCs

a. Set the IP addresses for PC1 and PC2 as shown in the configuration table.

b. Establish a terminal session to router R1 from one of the PCs, and configure the interfaces and

hostname as shown in the configuration table.

Task 2: Configure NBAR to Examine Network Traffic

Step 1: Enable NBAR Protocol Discovery

NBAR can determine which protocols and applications are currently running on a network. NBAR includes the

Protocol Discovery feature, which identifies the application protocols operating on an interface so that

appropriate QoS policies can be developed and applied. To enable Protocol Discovery to monitor selected

protocols on a router interface, issue the following commands from the global configuration mode:

FC-CPE-1(config)#interface fastethernet 0/0

FC-CPE-1(config-if)#ip nbar protocol-discovery

Step 2: Confirm that Protocol Discovery is configured

From the privileged EXEC mode, issue the show running-config command and confirm that the following

output appears under interface FastEthernet 0/0:

interface FastEthernet0/0

ip address 10.0.0.1 255.255.255.0

ip nbar protocol-discovery

If protocol-discovery is not confirmed, reissue the configuration commands for interface FastEthernet

0/0.

Task 3: Generate and Identify Network Traffic

Step 1: Generate FTP traffic

The Mozilla Thunderbird email client program will be downloaded from Discovery Server as an example of FTP.

a. On PC1, launch a web browser and enter the URL ftp://server.discovery.ccna,

Alternatively, from the command line, enter ftp server.discovery.ccna. If DNS is not

configured the IP address 172.17.1.1 must be used instead of the domain name.

b. Locate the file thunderbird_setup.exe in the pub directory, download the file, and save it on PC1.

Repeat this step for PC2.

Step 2: Generate Email traffic

If the Thunderbird email client has been installed and email accounts set up on both PC1 and PC2, proceed

to Step 2d. Otherwise, install and set up the email client on PC1 and PC2 as described in Steps 2a through 2c.

a. Install the Thunderbird email client on PC1 and PC2 by double-clicking the downloaded

thunderbird_setup.exe file and accepting the default settings.

b. When the installation has completed, launch the program.

c. Configure email account settings as shown in this table.

1) On the Tools menu, click Account Settings

Complete the required Thunderbird Account Settings.

In the left pane of the Account Settings screen, click Server Settings and complete the

necessary details.

4) In the left pane, click Outgoing Server (SMTP) and complete the proper configuration for the

Outgoing Server (SMTP).

d. Send and receive two emails between accounts on each PC.

Step 3: Display the NBAR results

With Protocol Discovery enabled, any protocol traffic supported by NBAR, as well as the statistics associated

with that protocol, can be discovered.

a. To display the traffic identified by NBAR, issue the show ip nbar protocol-discovery

command from the privileged EXEC mode.

FC-CPE-1#show ip nbar protocol-discovery

b. List each protocol identified and the Input and Output information.

Output:

ftp 18 16

1295 1288

0 0

0 0

c. Although the data traffic in this lab may not be sufficient to generate values for the 5min Bit rate

(bps) and 5min Max Bit Rate (bps) fields, consider and discuss how these values would be applied

to designing an FTP and email network.

Dapat membantu menentukan rata-rata dan puncak kebutuhan bandwidth jaringan.

Step 4: Use NBAR to monitor other data traffic

NBAR can identify and monitor a range of network application traffic protocols.

From the privileged EXEC mode of the router, issue the command show ip nbar port-map and note the output displayed.

FC-CPE-1#show ip nbar port-map

List some protocols that you consider should be monitored and policies applied to.

Output

port-map bgp udp 179

port-map bgp tcp 179

port-map bittorrent tcp 6881 6882 6883 6884 6885 6886

6887 6888 6889

port-map citrix udp 1604

port-map citrix tcp 1494

port-map cuseeme udp 7648 7649 24032

port-map cuseeme tcp 7648 7649

port-map dhcp udp 67 68

port-map directconnect tcp 411 412 413

port-map dns udp 53

port-map dns tcp 53

port-map edonkey tcp 4662

port-map exchange tcp 135

port-map fasttrack tcp 1214

port-map finger tcp 79

port-map ftp tcp 21

port-map gnutella udp 6346 6347 6348

port-map gnutella tcp 6346 6347 6348 6349 6355 5634

port-map gopher udp 70

port-map gopher tcp 70

port-map h323 udp 1300 1718 1719 1720 11720

port-map h323 tcp 1300 1718 1719 1720 11000 – 11999

port-map http tcp 80

port-map imap udp 143 220

port-map imap tcp 143 220

port-map irc udp 194

port-map irc tcp 194

port-map kerberos udp 88 749

port-map kerberos tcp 88 749

port-map l2tp udp 1701

port-map ldap udp 389

port-map ldap tcp 389

port-map mgcp udp 2427 2727

port-map mgcp tcp 2427 2428 2727

port-map netbios udp 137 138

port-map netbios tcp 137 139

port-map netshow tcp 1755

port-map nfs udp 2049

port-map nfs tcp 2049

port-map nntp udp 119

port-map nntp tcp 119

port-map notes udp 1352

port-map notes tcp 1352

port-map novadigm udp 3460 3461 3462 3463 3464 3465

port-map novadigm tcp 3460 3461 3462 3463 3464 3465

port-map ntp udp 123

port-map ntp tcp 123

port-map pcanywhere udp 22 5632

port-map pcanywhere tcp 65301 5631

port-map pop3 udp 110

port-map pop3 tcp 110

port-map pptp tcp 1723

port-map printer udp 515

port-map printer tcp 515

port-map rcmd tcp 512 513 514

port-map rip udp 520

port-map rsvp udp 1698 1699

port-map rtsp tcp 554

port-map secure-ftp tcp 990

port-map secure-http tcp 443

port-map secure-imap udp 585 993

port-map secure-imap tcp 585 993

port-map secure-irc udp 994

port-map secure-irc tcp 994

port-map secure-ldap udp 636

port-map secure-ldap tcp 636

port-map secure-nntp udp 563

port-map secure-nntp tcp 563

port-map secure-pop3 udp 995

port-map secure-pop3 tcp 995

port-map secure-telnet tcp 992

port-map sip udp 5060

port-map sip tcp 5060

port-map skinny tcp 2000 2001 2002

port-map smtp tcp 25

port-map snmp udp 161 162

port-map snmp tcp 161 162

port-map socks tcp 1080

port-map sqlnet tcp 1521

port-map sqlserver tcp 1433

port-map ssh tcp 22

port-map streamwork udp 1558

port-map sunrpc udp 111

port-map sunrpc tcp 111

port-map syslog udp 514

port-map telnet tcp 23

port-map tftp udp 69

port-map vdolive tcp 7000

port-map winmx tcp 6699

port-map xwindows tcp 6000 6001 6002 6003

Step 5: Clean up

Erase the configurations and reload the routers and switches. Disconnect and store the cabling. For PC hosts that are normally connected to other networks (such as the school LAN or to the Internet), reconnect the appropriate cabling and restore the TCP/IP settings

Challenge

This lab considered only the volume of FTP and email data traffic and its impact on network design. Reliable

access to servers is also important. In the space below, sketch a revised topology for this lab that would

provide redundancy for these services.

Lab 4.3.3 Prioritizing Traffic

Step 1: Gather the data traffic information

a. Read through the StadiumCompany case study curriculum.

List the current types of data traffic carried by the StadiumCompany network as well as the types

planned for the future.

b. Refer to the topology diagram and the stadium network diagram information

List the possible data sources and destinations on the StadiumCompany network. For example, there

is likely to be data communications between the stadium management and the vendor management,

but not between Team A and Team B.

Step 2: Prioritize the data traffic

  1. List the source, destination, and traffic type that will be assigned the High priority queue.
  2. List the source, destination, and traffic type that will be assigned the Medium priority queue.
  3. List the source, destination, and traffic type that will be assigned the Normal priority queue
  4. List the source, destination, and traffic type that will be assigned the Low priority queue.

Step 3: Finalize the Data Priorities

a. Discuss and review your data priority assignments with another student to ensure that it addresses allnpossible data. Modify your priorities as necessary.

b. Highlight on the StadiumCompany topology diagram the device or devices where data traffic priority policies are likely to be configured.

Step 4: Reflection

Ideally, it may seem that all data traffic should be given a priority and queued accordingly. Consider and

discuss the potential for network performance to be negatively affected if this policy were implemented

everywhere on the network.

Delay data sensitif akan melihat prioritas yang sama sebagai non-delay data sensitif. Suara, video, diberi prioritas yang sama sebagai lalu lintas lainnya, dll

Lab 4.3.4 Exploring Network QoS

Step 1: Cable and configure the network

a. Connect and configure the devices in accordance with the given topology and configuration.

Routing will have to be configured across the serial WAN link to establish data communications.

Configure Telnet access on each router.

b. Ping between Host1 and Discovery Server to confirm network connectivity.

1) Confirm Application Layer connectivity by telnetting from R2 to R1.

2) Troubleshoot and establish connectivity if the pings or Telnet fail.

c. After confirming the initial configurations, maintain a console terminal session connection with R2.

Step 2: Examine priority queue commands

Configuring Priority Queueing

Configuring priority queueing (PQ) has two required steps and an optional third step:

1. Define the priority list (Required)

2. Assign the priority list to an Interface (Required)

3. Monitor priority queueing lists (Optional)

A priority list contains the definitions for a set of priority queues. The priority list specifies which queue a

packet will be placed in and, optionally, the maximum length of the different queues. To perform queueing

using a priority list, you must assign the list to an interface. The same priority list can be applied to multiple interfaces. Alternatively, you can create many different priority policies to apply to different interfaces.

Defining the Priority List

The priority list is defined by:

1. Assigning packets to priority queues

2. Specifying the maximum size of the priority queues (Optional)

Packets are assigned to priority queues based on the protocol type and the interface where the packets enter the router. The priority-list commands are read in order of appearance until a matching protocol or interface type is found. When a match is found, the packet is assigned to the appropriate queue and the search ends. Packets that do not match other assignment rules are assigned to the default queue. The following global configuration mode commands are used to specify in which queue a packet is placed. The command format is priority-list list-number Use a list-number of 1 and note the options available.

a. Enter the following command and note the options available.

FC-CPE-1(config)#priority-list 1 ?

default Set priority queue for

unspecified datagrams

interface Set priorities for packets

from a named interface

protocol priority queueing by protocol

queue-limit Set queue limits for

priority queues

b. Note some of the protocol options available.

FC-CPE-1(config)#priority-list 1 protocol ?

arp IP ARP

bridge Bridging

cdp Cisco Discovery Protocol

compressedtcp Compressed TCP (VJ)

http HTTP

ip IP

llc2 llc2

pad PAD links

pppoe PPP over Ethernet

snapshot Snapshot routing support

c. Note the IP protocol options available.

FC-CPE-1(config)#priority-list 1 protocol ip ?

high

medium

normal

low

d. Note the HTTP protocol options available.

FC-CPE-1(config)#priority-list 1 protocol http ?

high

medium

normal

low

e. Note the IP protocol high priority options available.

FC-CPE-1(config)#priority-list 1 protocol ip high ?

fragments Prioritize fragmented IP

packets

gt Prioritize packets greater

than a specified size

list To specify an access list

lt Prioritize packets less than a

specified size

tcp Prioritize TCP packets ‘to’ or

‘from’ the specified port

udp Prioritize UDP packets ‘to’ or

‘from’ the specified port<cr>

f. Note the IP protocol high priority TCP options available.

FC-CPE-1(config)#priority-list 1 protocol ip high tcp ?

<0-65535> Port number

domain Domain Name Service (53)

echo Echo (7)

ftp File Transfer Protocol (21)

ftp-data FTP data connections (20)

irc Internet Relay Chat (194)

nntp Network News Transport Protocol

(119)

pop3 Post Office Protocol v3 (110)

smtp Simple Mail Transport Protocol

(25)

telnet Telnet (23)

www World Wide Web (HTTP, 80)

Over 30 port/service options are available.

Step 3: Configure an example priority queue

From the global configuration mode, issue the following commands.

FC-CPE-1(config)#priority-list 1 protocol http high

FC-CPE-1(config)#priority-list 1 protocol ip normal tcp ftp

FC-CPE-1(config)#priority-list 1 protocol ip medium tcp telnet

What do these commands establish?

Sebuah daftar prioritas (nomor “1”) yang menetapkan paket HTTP yang akan ditandai sebagai prioritas tinggi, paket FTP rendah prioritas, dan Telnet paket sebagai prioritas menengah.

Step 4: Assign the priority list to an interface

a. From the global configuration mode, issue the following commands to assign the priority list to

interface serial 0/1/0.

FC-CPE-1(config)#int s0/1/0

FC-CPE-1(config-if)#priority-group 1

b. Confirm the priority list configuration. From the privileged EXEC mode, issue the show runningconfig

command.

Which statements in the configuration show that the priority list has been configured and applied

correctly?

interface Serial0/1/0

ip address 10.10.0.2 255.255.255.252

priority-group 1

priority-list 1 protocol http high

priority-list 1 protocol ip normal tcp ftp

priority-list 1 protocol ip medium tcp telnet

c. Confirm that issuing the show queueing priority command from the privileged EXEC mode

produces the following output:

FC-CPE-1#show queueing priority

Current DLCI priority queue configuration:

Current priority queue configuration:

List Queue Args

1 high protocol http

1 normal protocol ip tcp port ftp

1 medium protocol ip tcp port telnet

Step 5: Examine the priority queues operation

a. On Host1, launch a web browser and enter the URL http://172.17.1.1 to access the web

services configured on the server.

b. Use FTP to download a file. On Host1, launch a new web browser window and enter the URL

ftp://172.17.1.1, or from the command line issue ftp 172.17.1.1

c. Download a large file from the server; for example, the Thunderbird setup program file.

d. From the privileged EXEC mode, issue the following command:

FC-CPE-1#show queueing interface s0/1/0

Output similar to this should be displayed:

Interface Serial0/1/0 queueing strategy: priority

Output queue utilization (queue/count)

high/94 medium/0 normal/106759 low/0

Note the packet count for each queue:

High

Medium

Normal

Low

e. Initiate a Telnet session from R2 to R1 and issue some show commands on R1.

f. Close the Telnet session.

g. Issue the following command from the R2 privileged EXEC mode:

FC-CPE-1#show queueing interface s0/1/0

Note the packet count for each queue:

High

Medium

Normal

Low

What is the significant difference when compared to the previous output form this command in

Step 5d?

Antrian Menengah sekarang memiliki jumlah paket, ini adalah prioritas yang ditugaskan untuk paket Telnet.

Step 6: Determine the priority queue requirements for the case study

a. Using the FilmCompany case study, what would you expect the priority queue requirements to be?

b. Discuss and compare your priorities with other students.

c. Amend your priority list statements to include traffic associated with the proposed network upgrade.

Step 7: Clean up

Erase the configurations and reload the routers and switches. Disconnect and store the cabling. For PC hosts

that are normally connected to other networks (such as the school LAN or to the Internet), reconnect the

appropriate cabling and restore the TCP/IP settings.

Challenge

The following privileged EXEC command displays the contents of packets inside a queue for a particular

interface:

show queue interface-type interface-number

However, in this lab, it is not likely that sufficient data traffic was generated at one time for the interface

queues to hold packets long enough to be inspected. Discuss how a network has to be load tested to ensure that all traffic priorities are met.

Lab 4.4.4 Investigating Video Traffic Impact on a Network

Step 1: Cable and configure the network

a. Connect and configure the devices in accordance with the given topology and configuration.

Set clock rate on the serial link to 56000.

Routing will have to be configured across the serial WAN link to establish data communications.

Step 2: Observe data traffic

In this step, you will generate concurrent data traffic and observe the time the flows take.

a. From Host1 command line, issue the command ping 172.17.1 1 –n 500 to generate a large

number of pings to Discovery Server.

b. While the pings are being generated on Host1, launch a web browser and enter the URL

http://server.discovery.ccna or http://172.17.1.1 to access the web services

configured on the server.

c. Use FTP to download a file. On Host1, launch a new web browser window and enter the URL

ftp://server.discovery.ccna, or issue ftp server.discovery.ccna from the command

line. If DNS is not configured, the IP address 172.17.1.1 must be used instead of the domain name.

d. Download a large file from the server; for example, the Thunderbird setup program file.

Note the total time taken to complete the pings, access the web page, and download the file.

Step 3: Stream the video file

Before beginning to stream the video ensure that QuickTime Player is installed on Host1, and that the video streaming service has been enabled on Discovery Server. See your instructor for advice if you are unsure. Launch QuickTime Player. Under File menu, go to Open URL

Enter URL rtsp://172.17.1.1/MWO.sdp, or a URL as provided by the instructor.

Note rate at which it plays back and the video and sound quality.

Video Quality

Sound Quality

Step 4: Observe both video and data traffic

a. From Host1 command line, issue the command ping 172.17.1 1 –n 500 to generate a large

number of pings to Discovery Server.

b. While the pings are being generated, use QuickTime Player to access the streaming video URL

again.

c. While the video is being played, launch a new web browser window on Host1 and enter the URL

http://server.discovery.ccna or http://172.17.1.1 to access the web services

configured on the server.

d. On Host1, launch another web browser window and enter the URL

ftp://server.discovery.ccna, or issue ftp server.discovery.ccna from the command

line. If DNS is not configured, the IP address 172.17.1.1 must be used instead of the domain name.

e. Download a large file from the server; for example, the Thunderbird setup program file.

Note the total time taken to complete the pings, access the web page, and download the file.

Note rate at which it plays back and the video and sound quality.

Video Quality

Sound Quality

Step 5: Observe the data flows with a different serial link clock rate

a. Change the serial link clock rate to 250000 on the router with the DCE interface.

b. Repeat Step 4 and record your observations.

Note the total time taken to complete the pings, access the web page, and download the file.

Note rate at which it plays back and the video and sound quality.

Video Quality

Sound Quality

c. Change the serial link clock rate to 2000000 on the router with the DCE interface.

d. Repeat Step 4 and record your observations.

Note the total time taken to complete the pings, access the web page, and download the file.

Note rate at which it plays back and the video and sound quality.

Video Quality

Sound Quality

Instructor Note: The Cisco 1841 router with WIC 2T Serial interfaces can support clock rates up to

4 000 0000 bits per second (4Mbps); other platforms and WIC 2A/S Serial interfaces may have a lower maximum clock rate.

Step 6: Record your general observations

Compare the different download times and video quality.

Step 7: Clean up

Erase the configurations and reload the routers and switches. Disconnect and store the cabling. For PC hosts that are normally connected to other networks (such as the school LAN or to the Internet), reconnect the appropriate cabling and restore the TCP/IP settings.

Step 8: Reflection

Consider and discuss how video and other data traffic can share network resources while maintaining

acceptable performance.

Video dan lalu lintas data dapat berbagi sumber daya jaringan yang sama jika bandwidth yang memadai tersedia atau jika lalu lintas yang diprioritaskan. Data lalu lintas dapat ditunda sedikit untuk memungkinkan lebih banyak waktu trafik video sensitif untuk memanfaatkan bandwidth yang tersedia.

Lab 4.5.1 Identifying Traffic Flows

Step 1: Cable and configure the current network

a. Referring to the topology diagram, connect the console (or rollover) cable to the console port on the

router and the other cable end to the host computer with a DB-9 or DB-25 adapter to the COM 1 port.

Ensure that power has been applied to both the host computer and router.

b. Establish a HyperTerminal or other terminal emulation program to the router.

c. From the command prompt on Host1, ping between Host1 and Discovery Server to confirm network

connectivity. Troubleshoot and establish connectivity if the pings fail.

Step 2: Configure NetFlow on the interfaces

From the global configuration mode, issue the following commands to configure NetFlow:

FC-CPE-1(config)#interface fastethernet 0/0

FC-CPE-1(config-if)#ip flow egress

FC-CPE-1(config-if)#ip flow ingress

FC-CPE-1(config-if)#interface fastethernet 0/1

FC-CPE-1(config-if)#ip flow ingress

FC-CPE-1(config-if)#ip flow egress

Step 3: Verify the NetFlow configuration

a. From the privileged EXEC mode, issue the show ip flow interface command.

FC-CPE-1#show ip flow interface

FastEthernet0/0

ip flow ingress

ip flow egress

FastEthernet0/1

ip flow ingress

ip flow egress

Confirm that the output shown above is displayed. Troubleshoot your configuration if this output is not

displayed.

b. From the privileged EXEC mode, issue the following command to ensure that flow cache statistics are

reset:

FC-CPE-1#clear ip flow stats

Step 4: Create network data traffic

A range of network application data flows is to be generated and captured. Generate as many of the data

flows shown below as is possible in your lab. Your instructor will advise you of the particular applications that are available to be used in this lab.

a. Ping the Discovery Server from Host1 to generate a data flow.

From the command line of Host1, issue the command ping 172.17.1.1 -n 200

b. Telnet to the Discovery Server from Host1.

If Discovery Server is being used, issue the command telnet server.discovery.ccna from the

command prompt of Host1.

If Discovery Server is not being used, DNS is not configured , or if a terminal program such as

HyperTerminal or TeraTerm is being used, telnet from Host1 to 172.17.1.1.

c. On Host1, launch a web browser and enter the URL http://server.discovery.ccna

If Discovery Server is not being used or DNS is not configured, then use http://172.17.1.1 to access

the web services configured on that server.

d. Use FTP to download a file.

On Host1, launch a web browser and enter the URL ftp://server.discovery.ccna, or issue

ftp server.discovery.ccna from the command line. If DNS is not configured use the IP

address 172.17.1.1 instead of the domain name.

Download a file from the server.

e. If email accounts have been configured using the POP3 and SMTP services on Discovery Server,

send an email using one of these accounts.

Step 5: View the data flows

At the conclusion of the data flow, view the details by issuing the show ip cache flow command from privileged EXEC mode.

FC-CPE-1#show ip cache flow

Output similar to this will be displayed.

IP packet size distribution (3969 total packets):

1-32 64 96 128 160 192 224 256 288 320 352 384 416 448 480

.000 .351 .395 .004 .011 .001 .005 .009 .001 .002 .005 .001 .000 .000 .000

512 544 576 1024 1536 2048 2560 3072 3584 4096 4608

.000 .000 .013 .000 .195 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000

IP Flow Switching Cache, 278544 bytes

2 active, 4094 inactive, 1368 added

22316 ager polls, 0 flow alloc failures

Active flows timeout in 30 minutes

Inactive flows timeout in 15 seconds

IP Sub Flow Cache, 17416 bytes

0 active, 1024 inactive, 0 added, 0 added to flow

0 alloc failures, 0 force free

1 chunk, 0 chunks added

last clearing of statistics 02:50:15

Protocol Total Flows Packets Bytes Packets Active(Sec) Idle(Sec)

——– Flows /Sec /Flow /Pkt /Sec /Flow /Flow

TCP-Telnet 9 0.0 13 47 0.0 5.2 10.8

TCP-FTP 28 0.0 7 62 0.0 0.8 10.4

TCP-WWW 64 0.0 7 138 0.0 0.3 2.1

TCP-other 16 0.0 75 840 0.1 0.0 4.1

UDP-DNS 878 0.0 1 72 0.0 0.0 15.4

UDP-other 347 0.0 3 88 0.1 4.5 15.5

ICMP 26 0.0 1 70 0.0 0.8 15.4

Total: 1368 0.1 2 318 0.3 1.2 14.6

< output omitted >

From your output, list the name of each protocol with the number of flows. Answers vary. Examples shown.

Telnet 9 flows

FTP 28 flows

WWW 64 flows

DNS 878 flows

ICMP 26 flows

TCP other 16 flows

UDP other 347 flows

What was the total number of packets generated? 3969 packets

Which protocol generated the most packets? TCP other (75 x 16 = 1200)

Which protocol produced the most bytes per flow? TCP other (75 x 840 = 63000)

Which protocol’s flows were on the network the longest time? Telnet 5.2 sec

Which protocol used the longest amount of network time? UDP other (4.5 x 347 = 1561.5 sec)

Step 6: Clean up

Erase the configurations and reload the routers and switches. Disconnect and store the cabling. For PC hosts that are normally connected to other networks (such as the school LAN or to the Internet), reconnect the appropriate cabling and restore the TCP/IP settings.

Step 7: Reflection

Create a projected applications document listing the applications planned to use the network.

Application Type Application Protocol Prioritas Comments

 

Email MS Outlook SMTP Menengah Semua pengguna
Voice Call Manager/SIP VRTP Tinggi Semua pengguna
Web Apache Server HTTP Rendah Semua pengguna
Database SQL Server TCP Menengah Restricted user

 

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